A Poet Builds a Nation: Hafez as a Catalyst in Emerson’s Process of Developing American Literature
AbstractNumerous studies have tried to elucidate the relationship between Emerson and Hafez. While most of these studies laid emphasis on influence of Hafez on Emerson and others on similarity and/or infatuation, they left untouched some vital historical aspects of this relationship. Taking into consideration the political and literary discourses of Emerson’s America may illuminate the issue. America’s attempt to gain independence from Britain, Emerson’s resolution to establish an American literary tradition, his break with the European fathers to establish that identity, his open-mindedness in receiving non-European cultures and the correspondence between Emerson’s transcendentalism and Hafez’s mysticism led to Hafez’s reception by Emerson.
Almansour, A. N. (2005). The middle east in antebellum America: the cases of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Edgar Allan Poe (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Ohio State University, Columbus, U. S.
Baldick, C. (2001). The concise Oxford dictionary of literary terms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Billitteri, C. (2009). Language and the Renewal of Society in Walt Whitman, Laura (Riding) Jackson, and Charles Olson: The American Cratylus. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bloom, H. (2008). Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Brook, C., Lewis, R. W. B., & Warren, R. P. (1973). American literature: The markers and the making. Vol. I. New York: St.Martin’s Press.
Carpenter, F. I. (1930). Emerson and Asia. New York: Haskell House Publishers Ltd.
Christy, A. (1932). The Orient in American transcend-dentalism. New York: Columbia University Press.
Dimock, W. C. (2009a). Internationalizing the curriculum: nations, languages, religions. English Language Notes, 47, 59-70.
Dimock, W. C. (2009b). Hemispheric Islam: continents and centuries for American literature. American Literary History, 21, 28-52.
Ekhtiar, M. (1976). Emerson & Persia: Emerson's developing interest in Persian mysticism. Tehran: Tehran University Press.
Emerson, R. W. (1904). The complete works of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Vol. 10. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Emerson, R. W. (1960). The poet. In Selections from Ralph Waldo Emerson: An organic anthology (pp. 222-241). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Emerson, R. W. (2013). Speech at the second annual meeting of the free religious association, at Tremont Temple, Friday, May 28, 1869. - Ralph Waldo Emerson, the works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol. 11 (Miscellanies) , the on-line library of liberty. Retrieved February 13, 2013 from http://oll.libertyfund.org/title/1961/ 123130
Fakahani, S. J. (1998). Islamic influences on Emer-son's thought: the fascination of a nineteenth century American writer. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 18, 291-303.
Fomeshi, B. M. (2015). Walt Whitman’s and Nima Yushij’s literary innovations: A study in comparative poetics (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
Fomeshi, B. M., & Khojastehpour, A. (2014). Comparative literature in Russia. Comparative Literature Journal of Academy of Persian Language and Literature, 9, 65-88.
Fotouhi, M., & Taebi, Z. (2012). Contemplating on Emerson’s ‘On Persian Poetry.’ Studies of Language and Comparative Literature Quar-terly, 4, 91-121.
Gay, R. M. (1928). A Study of the poet as seer. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc.
Goodman, R. (2011). Transcendentalism. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Spring 2011 Edition. Ed. Edward N. Zalta. Retrieved Novem-ber 10, 2012 from http://plato.stanford.edu/ entries/transcendentalism/
Hafez. (2002). Divan. Tehran: Javaheri.
Ironside, F. (2009). Bloom's how to write about Ralph Waldo Emerson. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Jost, F. (1974). Introduction to comparative literature. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merril.
Kleitz, D. R. (1988). Orientalism and the romantic imagination: The Middle East in the works of Irving, Poe, Emerson and Melville (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of New Hamp-shire, Durham, U. S.
Londero, R. R. (2012). We see cyborgs differently: a comparative study between North American and Latin American cyberpunk. In A. M. Alves (Ed.), Unveiling the Posthuman (pp. 133-144). Oxford, UK: Interdisciplinary Press.
Mahmoudi, A. G. (1989). He, you, me in mysticism of Hafez. Tehean: Ketabsara.
Milne, I. M. (2009). Literary movements for students. 2nd ed. New York: Gale.
Obeidat, M. M. (1998). American literature and orientalism. Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag.
Packer, B. (2004). American Verse Traditions, 1800–1855. In Sacvan Bercovitch (Ed.), History of American Literature (9-144). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Porte, J., & Morris, S. (1999). Chronology of Emerson's life. In J. Porte, & S. Morris (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Ralph Waldo Emerson (xvi-1). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Prawer, S. S. (1973). Comparative literary studies: an introduction. London: Duckworth.
Quinn, E. (2006). A dictionary of literary and thematic terms. 2nd ed. New York. Infobase Publishing.
Remak, H. (1961). Comparative literature, its definition and function. In N. Stallknecht, & H. Frenz (Eds.), Comparative literature: method and perspective. Carbondale: Southern Illinois Press.
Richardson, R. D. Jr. (1995). Emerson: The mind on fire. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ruland, R., & Bradbury, M. (1991). From Puritanism to Postmodernism: A history of American literature. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc.
Rusk, R. L. (1949). Leaping and piercing melodies. In R. L. Rusk (Ed.), The life of Ralph Waldo Emerson (pp. 305-330). New York and London: Co-lumbia University Press.
Wellek, R. (1970). Discriminations. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Wilson, R. J. (1999). Emerson as lecturer: man thinking, man saying. In J. Porte, & S. Morris (Eds.), The Cambridge companion to Ralph Waldo Emerson (pp. 76-97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yohannan, J. D. (1943a). Emerson's translations of Persian poetry from German sources. American Literature, 14, 407-420.
Yohannan, J. D. (1943b). The influence of Persian poetry upon Emerson's work. American Literature, 15, 25-41.
Zarrinkoub, A. (1976). From the alley of rends: On life and thought of Hafez. Tehran: Amir Kabir.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License