k@ta 2018-09-04T06:02:29+00:00 Dr. Liliek Soelistyo Open Journal Systems <p>&nbsp;</p> <table cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="middle"><a href="/ejournal/index.php/ing"><img src="" alt=""></a></td> <td valign="top" align="justify"> <p><strong>k@ta: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">a biannual publication on the study of language and literature</a></strong> is a refereed journal published twice a year in June and December by the English Department, Faculty of Letters, Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia. It presents articles on the study of language, literature and culture.</p> <p>This journal was first published in 1999 and was nationally accredited in 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, and 2016. The online version with DOI number for each article is now available at <a></a> and it can also be accessed from ProQuest e-journal (<a href=""></a>). <em>K@ta</em> has also been covered by Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Mendeley, CrossRef, and Google Scholar. <em>k@ta </em>is now in its bid to develop into an international journal (to be indexed in Scopus).</p> <p><a href=" Akreditasi KATA 2016.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">accreditation certificate</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> “More than kin and less than kind”: Hamlet and His (Linguistic) Problems 2018-08-27T06:51:19+00:00 Alireza Mahdipour Pyeaam Abbasi <p>T.S. Eliot's "Hamlet and His Problems" (1921) seems to be a pretext to add another erudite concept to the lexis of literary criticism. He charged both Hamlet and <em>Hamlet</em> of lacking "objective correlative." Eliot's own problem with the play, however, seems to arise from his particular epistemological perspective, his formalism, and even his implicit structuralism, and moreover, from his traditional, classic Cartesian modernity that suffers him to hold the notion of subject-object dichotomy in his literary speculations. Hamlet's problem, however, surpasses T. S. Eliot's structuralist view and anticipates the poststructuralist linguistic enigma. <em>Hamlet</em> and Hamlet's problems are, together with the other characters that are caught in the maze of language, linguistic. Hamlet's epistemological/ontological quest for the meaning or the truth are checked, patterned, done and ultimately undone by the language. He cannot find any "objective correlative" for his "particular emotion," for, in the signifying system of the language, all he can think or feel is restrained by "words". He cannot escape from the symbolic order of the language until his death, and "the rest is silence".</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Post-Traumatic People in Paul Auster's The Book of Illusions from Cathy Caruth's and Michelle Balaev's Perspectives 2018-09-04T03:52:09+00:00 Samira Sasani Diba Arjmandi <p>In his novel The Book of Illusions, Paul Auster displays his knowledge not only as a writer, but also as a talented critic of cinema, painting and world literature. Opening up the question of identity after the loss, Auster presents the reader with the traumatic form of grief over the dead ones. The trauma which is portrayed in The Book of Illusions is the direct experience with death, with those who are left behind and for those who find death as the only solution for being forgiven. Strangely enough, while the main theme is death, Auster portrays the ways of resistance and the power of love to shape the process of post-traumatic identification. Precisely the aim here is to analyze Auster’s novel with the help of new theories that are introduced recently into the realm of literary criticism and trauma studies by Cathy Caruth and Michelle Balaev. By studying different opinions about loss and trauma and applying new perspectives, this research scrutinizes Austerian characters. Therefore there is a survey, a study of trauma from vantage points of traditional model theoreticians like Caruth and also pluralistic model argument represented by Balaev.</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Semiotics for Interpreting Quilt’s Cultural Values from the U.S. and Indonesia 2018-09-04T04:13:20+00:00 Ekawati Marhaenny Dukut <p>Historically, quilt making has been recorded in the United States (U.S.) since the 18th century. Not only is it popular for its function but also for the social expression of its people to their environment. In designing quilts, creators make use of different colors and symbols to express a certain phenomenon. By use of library research and semiotics for an analytical-descriptive discussion, the socio-cultural and historical perspectives of U.S. quilts are found to explain how designs have evolved from the 18<sup>th </sup>to the 21<sup>st</sup> century of the U.S. The semiotics method has also shown how through an American Studies transnational process of cross bordering countries, the U.S. quilt has influenced its neighboring countries, like Indonesia.&nbsp; This article shares how a number of U.S. quilt patterns, colors and cultural values are found in Indonesian quilt. Among the cultural values found are the maintenance of loyalty and obedience. Interestingly, while the U.S. cultural value of individualism is respected, the Indonesian collectivism is preferred more in quilt making.</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Illusory World of a Peculiar Man: A Psychoanalytical Study of Nicholai Gogol’s “Diary of a Madman” 2018-09-04T04:16:17+00:00 Sayyed Rahim Moosavinia Ala Bavarsad <p>To become clear, the concept of madness, the hows and whys that follow the recognition of it needs a discerning view. Thereupon, this research is going to study the madness of the main character of the short story “Diary of a Madman” written by Nikolai Gogol in which he meticulously illustrates how a madman’s mind operates. A pivotal concept to be dealt with is the power of unconscious, which according to Sigmund Freud has a considerable influence on the psychic system. Freud maintains that if the Ego is not able to keep a balance between its demands and the unconscious desires, Psychosis happens. In madman’s case, it is Schizophrenia. The madman shows abnormalities like hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and disorganized behavior which are all symptoms of schizophrenia. Each symptom will be discussed in detail through the study. Another issue which is worth being elucidated is the madman’s place in Lacanian Orders. Jacques Lacan depicts psyche’s development in three orders or phases: The Real, the Imaginary, and the Symbolic. In this research the focus will be on the imaginary order as the madman shows signs of being stuck in this phase without any positive movement toward the next, the symbolic. According to Lacan, psychosis is the consequence of the incapability in entering the symbolic order. Accordingly, this research will study the madman’s psychosis and his situation in the psychic world.</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Packaging Consumption: Stylistic Devices and Persuasive Functions of American and Indonesian Advertising Slogans 2018-09-04T06:02:29+00:00 Gabriella Tiara Utomo Setefanus Suprajitno <p>This study discusses the significance of style in creating indelible and iconic slogans that endure time. By using qualitative content analysis, we examine the stylistic devices of the ten American and Indonesian food and beverages slogans in order to find out their persuasive functions. In our analysis, we utilize three levels of stylistic analysis, namely, lexical, grammatical, and phonological. Our findings show that stylistic devices such as idioms and proverbs, personification, humor, emotional appeal, and imagery, are used for invoking customers’ buying motives. By invoking customers’ buying motives, those devices try to manipulate the customers’ perception so that they would accept the advertised product as a means of satisfying their thirst and craving.</p> 2018-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ahmad Tohari’s The dancer: Revisited 2018-01-29T16:57:07+00:00 Dwi Setiawan <p>As with many post-colonial countries, Indonesia has suffered from a long conflict between the military and civil society since its independence in 1945. This struggle is reflected in Ahmad Tohari’s novel entitled <em>The dancer </em>(2012), which has been largely credited as being critical towards the military regime. Using the theories of depoliticisation, I argue that the novel is 1) largely supportive of the military regime due to the oppressive situation as well as the author’s own political line, and 2) influenced by other powers besides the government. The fact that the novel dares to touch the once suppressed subjects of the Indonesian Communist Party (the arch enemy of the regime) and the anti-communist persecution shows a drive for politicisation. Nevertheless, further analysis shows that, by portraying it as highly political, <em>The dancer</em> actually depoliticises the party in that it only reinforces what has been said of the party and removes any alternative points of view. It also represses and depoliticises the military’s persecution and killing of the suspected communists through the pretexts of self-defence, ignorance, and guilt.</p> 2017-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mediocrity Madness: the Destructive Effects of Antonio Salieri’s Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Amadeus 2018-01-29T16:57:07+00:00 Ivonne Muliawati Harsono <p class="Body1">Industriousness is generally perceived as a noble trait. Such mindset is firmly ingrained within the society through religious teachings and moral virtues. Since the foundation of identity is shaped through difference, many people endure tedious labour to either arrive at a socially-approved level or surpass that level. For individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder, the struggle to dismiss mediocrity may result in a form of madness conveyed through destructive actions towards both the subject and the object. The purpose of this paper is to identify the phases through which Antonio Salieri’s Narcissistic Personality Disorder in <em>Amadeus </em>triggers a series of destructive effects aimed at himself and others. This research concludes that the transition from the <em>sense of mediocrity</em> to <em>mediocrity madness</em> for people with Narcissistic Personality Disorder can be divided into three phases: <em>the acknowledgment of mediocrity,</em> <em>the narcissistic wound</em>, and <em>the</em> <em>mediocrity madness</em>.</p> 2017-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transposition of the Scientific Elements in Hiroshi Teshigahara’s Adaptation of Kobo Abe’s the Face of Another 2018-01-29T16:57:07+00:00 Anton Sutandio <p class="Body1">This article focuses on Hiroshi Teshigahara’s film adaptation of the famous Kobo Abe’s <em>The Face of Another</em> with special attention on the transposition of the scientific elements of the novel in the film. This article observes how Teshigahara, through cinematic techniques, transposes Abe’s scientific language into visual forms. Abe himself involved in the film adaptation by writing the screenplay, in which he prioritized the literary aspects over the filmic aspect. This makes the adaptation become more interesting because Teshigahara is known as a stylish filmmaker. Another noteworthy aspect is the internal dialogues domination within the novel narration. It is written in an epistolary-like narration, placing the protagonist as a single narrator which consequently raises subjectivity. The way Teshigahara externalizes the stream-of-consciousness narration-like into the medium of film is another significant topic of this essay.</p> 2017-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Transcultural Hamlet: Representations of Ophelia and Gertrud in 21st-century Iran 2018-01-29T16:57:07+00:00 Robabeh Jalayer Alireza Anushiravani <p class="Body1">Multitudes of intermedial Shakespearean adaptations, especially since 1975, have captured Iranian theatrical stage, cinema or radio as the Bard’s texts are frequently modernized, transfigured and indigenized in order to add to his globalization. <em>Hamlet</em> works well in the mechanisms of temporality, spatiality, power, control and sexuality, socio-political discourses, economic upheaval, female self and gender struggles even in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Hence, Iranian directors such as Varuzh Karim-Masihi and Arash Dadgar as well as the British director Gregory Doran have re-interpreted this text based on new ideological grounds in which the characters are at times similar or different. In this article, the transformation and characterization of major characters, especially female ones such as Gertrud/Mah-Tal’at and Ophelia/Mahtab, are analyzed based on Hutcheon’s Adaptation Theory to see how they are represented in an Asian society whose Islamic ideology necessitates a unique transcultural, transhistorical rendition.</p> 2017-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Phonological Errors by Dutch Exchange Students in Reading Indonesian Texts 2018-01-30T12:58:19+00:00 Theodorus Yohanes Mustamu Henny Putri Saking Wijaya <p class="Body1">In this study, the five non-existing Indonesian sounds in Dutch sound system were observed because these sounds cause a problem. Moreover, the writers analyzed the phonological errors produced by the Dutch exchange students. The theories were from Moeliono and Darwowidjojo (2003) for the Indonesian consonants and from Mennen, Levelt and Gerrits (2006) for the Dutch consonants. The findings show that there were five Indonesian sounds that do not exist in Dutch sound system. Furthermore, the Dutch exchange students produced phonological errors in initial, medial and final positions. In conclusion, the phonological errors in five observed sounds produced by the Dutch exchange students happened because of the L1 transfer and the lack of knowledge of Indonesian consonants.</p> 2017-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Destruction of Bekisar Merah: Antoine Berman’s Deforming Tendencies in The Red Bekisar 2018-01-29T16:57:07+00:00 Christy Maya Uktolseya <p class="Body1"><em>Bekisar Merah</em>, a novel by prominent Indonesian writer Ahmad Tohari, had been translated into its English version <em>The Red Bekisar. </em>Being a literary work that is thick with Javanese culture with all its depth and uniqueness to the global literary world, the original work is compared to the translated work and furthermore analyzed using Antoine Berman’s ‘negative analysis.’ Berman suggested that in translating a foreign text, foreign elements should be kept and not be destroyed by familiarizing them to the receiving culture. Using the ‘deforming tendencies’ in his concept, three foreign deforming tendencies can be found in <em>The Red Bekisar: </em>the destruction of underlying network signification, the destruction of the linguistic patterns, and the destruction of vernacular patterns or their exoticization. Through the samples taken and the analysis, it is found that the three deforming tendencies are making drastic changes and even loss to many elements in the novel, such as their meanings, unity, rhythm, degree, coherence in the line of thoughts, and the richness in the foreign elements.</p> 2017-12-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Role of Girls as Mothers in Harry Potter Series 2018-02-14T12:53:39+00:00 Marcelina Fransisca Jenny Mochtar This study focuses on the role of the female characters in <em>Harry Potter</em> series. It aims to find out the ways the female characters, Hermione Granger, Ginny Weasley, and Luna Lovegood take a mother role for Harry, whereas they are in their teenage years. Using Barthes’ theory on myths, this study identifies that there are two myths that are in operation, the myth that girls are supposed to be mothers and the myth that mothers are supposed to protect, nurture, and educate. As the agents of the myths,the three teenage girls willingly take their role as  mothers  role that are assigned to them. These three female characters take their roles as mothers to Harry in how they protect, nurture, and educate Harry. In response to this, Harry also succumbs to the position of being protected, nurtured and educated by these three girls. Despite Rowling’s claims on her being a feminist when she said that “I’ve always considered myself as a feminist” (Rowling, 2011), she cannot escape the myths on girls and women. Rowling sees that  being a mother is the most powerful role for girls and women 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Omnipresence of Television and the Ascendancy of Surveillance/Sousveillance in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 2017-09-19T10:09:57+00:00 Hassan Abootalebi This paper is an attempt to analyze Ray Bradbury’s <em>Fahrenheit 451</em>(1953) under the light of Jean Baudrillard’s notions on the media and the influences it exerts on people’s daily lives, and with an eye to Michel Foucault’s <em>surveillance</em> as well. The title-mentioned work, it is suggested, portrays a representative sample of a culture where different fields including books, education, and history fall under the influence of the media. Bradbury presents a society in which its inhabitants are bombarded with excessive data transmitted through television most of which is detrimental and not reliable. It is concluded that the presented culture in the novel is a microcosm of contemporary societies where authorities keep their subjects under control, engendering an atmosphere of anxiety, trepidation and apprehension for subversive forces and therefore preclude any disturbance on the part of them 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Representation of Aloneness in Forever Alone Guy Comic Strips 2017-09-19T10:09:57+00:00 Pricillia Chandra Ribut Basuki This study aims to discuss the representation of aloneness in Forever Alone Guy comic strips. The purpose of this research is to find out how the meaning of aloneness is constructed in the representation of Forever Alone Guy through the theory of representation described by Stuart Hall (1997, 2013). In the theory suggested by Hall, it is described that there are two ways to be done in creating representation. Those ways are through language/sign and mental representation. The mental representation is the only way used in this research with a reason that this analysis focuses to the stigmas attached to the concept of aloneness. The analysis shows that the construction of meaning is done through embedding clusters of negative stigmas to the three entities: single, alone and lonely. Thus, through the analysis, it can be concluded that the dominant meaning which represents being single and alone as the ‘imperfect’ condition plays an important role in the construction of the meaning 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A thematic analysis of Palahniuk’s fiction in light of Epicureanism 2017-09-19T10:09:57+00:00 Hesamoddin Shahriari Ghazal Toosi Chuck Palahniuk is a contemporary American writer whose novels have been adapted into acclaimed Hollywood motion pictures. Palahniuk’s literary style is often branded as modernist with nihilistic undertones. In spite of such views, in this article, we argue that through a close reading of Palahniuk and a critical interpretation of the recurrent themes in his novels, one can find traces of Epicurean philosophy echoed through the ages. Though different in means, both Palahniuk and Epicurus seem to highlight the importance of and the strive for achieving a state of ataraxia through overcoming fear and aponia through transcending physical pain and torment. After providing an introduction to Epicurean thought and Palahniuk’s style and works, connections will be established between the various shared elements and themes 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## People and Nature in Asian Stories: Reading and Writing Materials for Eco Education 2017-09-19T10:09:57+00:00 Novita Dewi The purpose of this article is to make parents/teachers/writers of children literature aware of eco education through stories about people and nature. Written through the eyes of a child, many conservation stories not only empower the young minds, but they also help adults change their attitude to respect environment. The first part of this article examines such environmental stories as fables, folklores, short stories from Asia, while the second part is a project report on writing eco education materials, i.e. a serial of 3 environmental stories for young adults. Using Ecocriticism and Postcolonial perspectives to analyze the stories, the study shows that the narrative strands found in the stories include (1) depletion of the earth and natural resources, (2) people’s greediness, and (3) preservation of the traditional wisdom. Some stories are still anthro­pocentric so as to provide no space to explore fully the human-nature relationship in a balanced way. Although animal stories dominate the narratives, it is the specific and philosophic depiction of place and nature that give the stories Asian characteristics in their shared campaign to save our planet. This study concludes that the call for environmental protection can be done through young adult literature in a non-condescending manner instead of the usual patronizing-colonizing method 2017-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Suffrage Movement and the Subversion of the ‘Juridico-Discursive’ Power in the Victorian Period: Elizabeth Robins and The Concept of 'New Women' 2017-01-25T14:52:54+00:00 Esmaeil Najar Reza Kazemifar <p>This paper examines the socio-historical subversion of ‘juridico-discursive’ power in the late Victorian period. It briefly investigates the rise of the British suffrage movement and highlights the role of ‘suffrage drama’ as its social apparatus. The authors demonstrate how suffrage artists, especially the playwright/actress Elizabeth Robins, acted against the dominant patriarchal hegemony and were in frontline of social uprisings. It is argued that ‘Suffrage drama’ as a ‘place of tolerance’ functioned as an antithesis to the mainstream theatre and challenged the conventional dramatic forms practiced prior to its birth. Suffrage drama provided a space for women to have their collective voice heard in a social and political context in the early Victorian era. Elizabeth Robins, mostly acknowledged for enacting women heroines of Ibsen’s plays, became an invaluable inspirational figure for suffrage women as she was the actress in whom the strong concept of the ‘New Woman’ was incarnated.</p> 2017-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Encoding / Decoding Model on Keats’s “Ode on a Grecian Urn” as a Thing 2017-01-25T14:52:54+00:00 Hussein Salimian Rizi Pyeaam Abbasi <p>John Keats, a main figure in the second generation of Romantic poets, was not generally well received by his contemporary critics, though during the course of time, he has become one of the most beloved poets. Stuart Hall proposes an analytical model of communication, namely the encoding/decoding model, which assumes a complex structure of relations to be produced and sustained through linked but distinctive moments which are termed as production, circulation, distribution/ consumption, and reproduction. This paper employs Hall’s encoding/decoding communication model as a yardstick to move beyond his approach, which mainly addresses modern mass media and communication system, and relate the distinctive moments playing integrally in encoding and decoding to Keats’s <em>Ode on a Grecian Urn</em> (1819). Furthermore, there is an attempt to turn the spotlight on the ode’s durability after the French Revolution passions abate and the poem starts to gain its thingness.</p> 2017-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Comparison of Obama’s 2007 and Hillary Clinton’s 2015 Bids for Presidency Speeches 2017-01-25T14:52:54+00:00 Samuel Gunawan <p>The article sought to study Barack Obama’s 2007 bid for the presidency in his Announcement Speech and Hillary Rodham Clinton’s 2015 bid for the presidency  in her Campaign Launch Speech. It focused on how both candidates used the central ideas and their development into the main ideas of the speeches to declare their bids for President of the U.S.A. The research raised some questions regarding whether the two speeches had similarities, as both politicians were running in the presidential race on the Democratic Party’s path. The research method employed qualitative content analysis to study the core meaning of the speeches based on new analytical narratives viewed in terms of specific rhetorical strategies. Subsequently, the study interpreted the underlying thought behind the speeches by focusing on the central ideas and their elaboration into the main ideas. The article showed that Obama and Clinton shared some similarities as they attempted to earn the support of Americans of all backgrounds. They defended the cause of the middle-class economy. Obama focused more on a coalition of Americans of diverse background and change, whereas Clinton focused more on furthering the middle-class economy.</p> 2017-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oral Corrective Feedback in an Intermediate EFL Conversation Class 2017-01-25T14:52:54+00:00 Siauw Melina Febrianti This study was done to find out: (1) the types of oral corrective feedback (CF) strategies used by the teacher of an intermediate EFL conversation class and (2) the pedagogical focus of the oral CF in the intermediate EFL conversation class. This study was limited to oral CF given for grammatical and lexical errors found in the conversation class. The theory used as a guideline in this study was the eight major types of oral CF strategies by Sheen and Ellis (2011), supported by Sheen (2011). This study used descriptive qualitative approach. Video recording and semi-structured interview were used in this study. The writer found seven out of eight major types of oral CF strategies in the conversation class in which Didactic Recast was the strategy used the most. The teacher used the oral CF to correct both grammatical and lexical errors in the class; the emphasis, however, was on grammar. Thus, the pedagogical focus of the lesson is grammatical accuracy despite the fact that it is a conversation class because the teacher provided more oral CF strategies aiming at the learners’ grammatical accuracy compared to lexical errors 2017-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Following the Traces of Feminine Writing in Adrienne Rich’s Poems 2017-01-25T14:52:54+00:00 Nodeh Soghra Pourgiv Farideh <p>The phallogocentric structure of language privileges the male in construction of meaning throughout the patriarchal history which allows no place for feminine writing. Opposing what Lacan calls as phallogocentric discourse, poststructuralist feminists exhort to what Cixous terms as “écriture feminine” as the inscription of female difference in language and text. Therefore, viewing women's difference as a <em>source </em>(of imagery) rather than a point of inferiority to men, Rich rediscovers female experiences in her poems through using “écriture feminine” and thus exhibits the productivity and plurality of women’s language. Hence, the present study, looking from the perspective of Cixous’s “écriture feminine,” aims at analyzing female modes of writing in Rich’s poems. The main finding of the research is that, through using genuine female forms of expression as opposed to phallogocentric structure of expression, Rich brings into being the symbolic weight of female consciousness, illustrating the oppressive forces that obstruct female expression.</p> 2017-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cultural Pragmatics in Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story 2016-09-02T14:07:42+00:00 Dodhy S. This article engages debates on how changing cultural values impinge on the behavioral patterns of an individual by considering social actions as distinctly mobile engagement with the environment. Cultural Pragmatics is essential for a close examination of Edward Albee’s The Zoo Story. This article attempts to investigate how intentions of interactants are culture driven and culture related. People are led to a state of disorientation due to collapse of cultural values and discontinuity of conventional view points and beliefs. The speaker’s discourse highlights the character’s inability to communicate to suggest the emptiness of hackneyed social intercourse resulting in psychopathological diseases among individuals. 2016-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metaphorical Expressions Used in Foods Products Advertisements and Their Inferences 2016-06-30T10:10:13+00:00 Tjitrakusuma N. I Metaphors are not only found in everyday use of language, but also in advertisements. The use of metaphorical expressions, specifically conceptual metaphors in advertisements, especially in the slogans, is very common because they can attract attention and they can give positive inferences for the advertisement messages. The metaphorical expressions cannot be interpreted literally, but they must be inferred because they give new meanings to the expressions. The inference can be drawn by mapping the features of source domain on the target domain. Based on this condition, this article investigates metaphorical expressions used in the foods products advertisements through the answer of these two questions: 1) What are the target and source domains of the metaphorical expressions used in the advertisements? 2) What inferences can be extracted from the mapping of the source domains on the target domains? 2016-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Investigation of Identity Construction: A Foucauldian Reading of Sam Shepard's Buried Child 2016-06-30T10:17:36+00:00 Saeidabadi S. Shahabi H. Shepard is peculiarly powerful in his symbolic family problem plays: True West, Buried Child and Curse of the Starving Class. He allegorizes the American experience and undermines the myth of America as the New Eden. The present study seeks to critically explore Sam Shepard's Buried Child in terms of Foucauldian conception of identity construction. Shepard is depicting a dystopian world with its bewildered characters; however he has still got a romantic view of individuals trying to grapple with the society in order to get unity and order. This Shephardian attitude towards human beings is seemingly a free agent that overlaps the Foucauldian view which establishes a philosophy focusing on the relationship between the self and the society. The present essay attempts to demonstrate the complicated relationship between the self and the opposing forces. 2016-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Babies or No Babies: Communicating with Feminine Bodies in Mom Lit 2016-06-30T10:23:30+00:00 Handojo P.F. Djundjung J.M. Mom-Lit, or Mommy Literature, can be seen as a form of challenging the feminine body’s ideals and motherhood ideology. The article studies how the feminine bodies are represented in three Mom Lit: Baby Proof by Emily Giffin, Shopaholic and Baby by Sophie Kinsella, and Confessions of A Bad Mother by Stephanie Calman. The way the women describe different bodily experiences prompts questions and challenges to the ideal feminine body and womanhood, which are associated with motherhood. Using the review of Motherhood Ideology and the concept of Silent Body, this article takes a closer look on how the women in Mom Lit think and talk about their bodies. The analysis shows that Mom Lit presents silent body to relate with the childfree choice and offers different maternal body experience that is in contrast with the feminine body ideals. In the end, it can be concluded that Mom Lit constructs a new site of women’s liberation by being receptive and communicative to the body. 2016-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Ideological Questions of Marriage in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure 2018-02-19T13:14:54+00:00 Salman Saleh, N. Abbasi, P. As one of the prominent ideologies of the nineteenth-century— in a complex interrelation with other contemporary ideological discourses particularly femininity and marriage—religion adopts a critical stance in Hardy’s presentation of characters. Breaching the religio-conventional image of femininity as “Angel in the House” and “Cow Woman,” Hardy’s Jude the Obscure (1895) is indeed deemed to be his milestone in presenting his anti-Christian attitudes towards the contemporary religion. This study aims to present Hardy’s outright hostility towards the nineteenth-century Christianity through his creation of non-conformist characters, necessitating a parallel study with other contemporary discourses regarding marriage and femininity, and conflict with the religion of the time. Hardy’s magnum opus, the work on which he was to stake his final reputation as a novelist, was clearly Jude the Obscure which as a noticeable socio-religious experimentation of the late nineteenth-century, reveals Hardy’s perception of new ideas about femininity and marriage by presenting the hot contemporary issues of “New Woman” and “Free Union” through the development and presentation of Sue Bridehead and her free union with Jude, respectively. Hardy’s presentation of Sue Bridehead as a “New Woman,” and employing the “Free Union” in marked contrast with the nineteenth-century convention of marriage as a “Bonded Pair” is Hardy’s closing upshot of his final novelistic attempt. The non-conformist Jude and Sue are presented as figures touching the Victorian Christian standards of morality, while, the final tragic destiny of Jude and Sue’s helplessness attest to the writer’s substantial contribution as a Victorian male novelist to the ideologies circulating at the time. 2016-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Dynamic Interplay Between Agent and Structure in the Film The Shawshank Redemption 2017-09-29T09:30:12+00:00 Limanta, L. S. A social phenomenon in society as represented in a film can be analyzed from many different perspectives. One of the theories that can be applied to do that is Giddens’ structuration theory. It emphasizes on the duality of structure meaning that agency is inseparable from structure and both affect each other. It consists of three-tiered dimensions, namely the structure of signification, domination, and legitimation, and the interaction that agents carry out in the form of communication, power and sanction mediated by the modality of interpretive scheme, facility, and norm. This paper will analyze the interplay of agency and structure in the film Shawsank Redemption through the characters of Andy, Red, Brooks, Captain Hadley, and Warden Norton. The analysis result shows that the agents in the film indeed can make some changes on the structure, by only reproducing or transforming it. 2016-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Evaluation on Comprehensive Indonesian-English Dictionary by A. M. Stevens and A. Ed. Schmidgall-Tellings 2016-02-17T14:36:38+00:00 da Silva, A.M. Almost all learners of English as an additional language need a bilingual dictionary. By and large, the dictionary is used to find out meanings of words, though today’s modern dictionaries serve more than that particular function. In Indonesia, there have been several widely-known and used bilingual dictionaries aimed for different profiles of target users like learners or practitioners. This article evaluated the latest edition of the Comprehensive Indonesian English Dictionary by Stevens and Schmidgall-Tellings. The purpose of the brief analysis is to give some contribution on the revision of the dictionary’s future edition in particular and other Indonesian-English dictionaries in general. It was found that besides the many advantages the dictionary provides to its readers, there have been several aspects that need revisions. 2016-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: a Mirror of American Fifties 2016-02-17T14:36:24+00:00 Ghandeharion, A. Bozorgian, F. Sabbagh, M.R.G. With its portrayal of a talented yet frustrated young American woman in the 1950s, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963) depicts the experiences of a nineteen-year-old girl before her mental breakdown. Benefitting from a Friedanian second wave feminism, this paper aims to trace the root of disappointment and identity crisis in Plath's heroine, Esther Greenwood. It is understood that besides being a personal issue, her frustration is the outcome of sociocultural factors. The lack of role models and the contradictory messages sent by the media lead to her anxiety, disillusionment, and uncertainty. The Bell Jar proposes a solution: it is indeed possible for a woman to hold a fulfilling career and at the same time be a caring wife and a loving mother. And this is the answer Esther tries to figure out at a time when the boundaries between the domestic sphere and the outside world are clearly defined for women. 2016-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gypsies in 19th-Century French Literature: The Paradox in Centering the Periphery 2016-07-11T12:09:17+00:00 Udasmoro W. The issues of liberty and views of the “Other” were common in 19th-century French literary discourse. In many aspects, the “Other” appeared to hold a position of strength. In literature, Prosper Mérimée and Victor Hugo attempted to centralize gypsy women through their narratives, even though gypsies (as with Jews) had been marginalized (though present) throughout French history. Mérimée’s Carmen and Hugo’s Notre Dame de Paris presented new central perspectives on the peripheral, which in this context should be understood to mean gypsies. This research paper attempts to answer the following questions: What ideology lies behind both stories’ centralization of the peripheral gypsy women? How do the authors portray gypsy women? The goal of this article is to explore the operations of power in a gender-relations context, focusing on the construction of gypsy women in two 19th-century French novels. 2015-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ecocritical Reunion of Man and Nature in The Ruined Cottage 2016-07-11T12:09:17+00:00 Bazregarzadeh E. While the previous researches on Romanticism, especially Wordsworth (1770-1850), and Ecocriticism are quite far-ranging, the inherent ecocritical echoes of Wordsworth’s oeuvre are yet to be surveyed. This study is an endeavor to examine the ecocritical aspects of William Wordsworth’s The Ruined Cottage (1797-ca.1799) with the aim of bringing into focus the inner link between Nature and Ecocriticism in the above-mentioned poem. With that issue in mind, the researcher intends to take the viewpoints of the Yale School critics, the New Historicists, and those of the ecologists into consideration to prove the previous critics’ inability in rendering a thorough reading of The Ruined Cottage and will examine the poem through the lens of Ecocriticism by focusing on the correspondence between the gradual withering of Nature and the gradual demise of Margaret’s soul in order to reach a comprehensive examination of the poem in the end. 2015-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Interdisciplinary Study of Narrative Structure in Dash Akol as a Short Story and Dash Akol as a Movie 2016-07-11T12:09:17+00:00 Dashti Azam Hadidi Yaser This paper undertakes an interdisciplinary study of the short story “Dash Akol” and the movie adapted from it. “Dash Akol” is a short story written by a famous Iranian author Sadeq Hedayat in 1932. Hedayat’s “Dash Akol” was made into a movie in 1971 by Masoud Kimiai. There are some discrepancies between the short story “Dash Akol” and the movie, triggering a number of significant implications. This article discusses these discrepancies along with Hedayat’s and Kimiai’s narrative techniques. To this end, it applies Genett’s (1988) Narrative Discourse and his three main narrative methods: narrating, characterization, and focalization. Meanwhile, it brings in Rimmon-Kenen’s (2002) strategy to study characters, and Stam and Burgoyne and Flitterman-lewis (2005) to show the ways in which the movie has deviated from the story. In terms of characterization, it studies traits such as, action, speech, naming and setting. 2015-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Critical Comparative Reading of Nationalism in Pramoedya A. Toer and Ngugi wa Thiong’o 2016-07-11T12:09:17+00:00 Sunardi D. This article tries to explore how the conception, birth, and development of novel can become a tool to shed lights to our understanding of the conception, birth, and development of nationalism. The discussion departs from a powerful finding by Edward Said that prominent exiles he happened to know and befriend with had deliberately chosen to be novelists. According to Said, the choice to write novels was fueled by intense feeling of homelessness, which in turn took shape in dream of an imaginary homeland. Novel as a genre is in perpetual search for epic; and since that epic is elusive, what novel can offer is an imagined form. It is in this shared feeling, the same desire to imagine a perfect home, the constant fabrication of narratives of the epic past, the invention of quasi-sacred texts alongside with the heroes and enemies, the dynamics of including and excluding of people that novel and nationalism inform each other. As reader, we turn to postcolonial Kenyan Thiong’o’s A Grain of Wheat and Indonesian Toer’s This Earth of Mankind. By commenting on the main characters of these novels we make intellectual exploration into the idea of nationalism. The results are two tentative conclusions regarding the relationship between novel and nationalism, i.e. (1) the pretense of novel to be epic is comparable to the claim of nationalism as the historically overarching set of identity of modern society, and (2) the dynamics of the characters in novel is a metonymy of the dynamics of nationalism bildungsroman. 2015-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England 2016-07-11T12:09:17+00:00 Hassan Abootalebi H. Niazi N. The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998) in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour of the theme park named England, England later on she loses interest in it when she comes to realization that everything about it is fake. This condition, making her think of her own identity and true self, finally leads her to leave the theme park and settle in the village of Anglia where she hopes to discover her true nature and regain her lost happiness. 2015-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the Panoptical Eye of Self-Caring in Nabokov’s The Eye: A Foucauldian Analysis 2016-07-11T12:09:17+00:00 Taghizadeh Ali Haj’jari Mohammad-Javad Nabokov’s protagonist’s sufferings, suicide, and final happiness in The Eye (1930) can be analyzed through Foucault’s policy of the “care of the self” based on which an individual acts in a parrhesiastic relationship with himself to panoptically watch and discover himself. Smurov’s first-person I/eye sacrifices his former self to be reborn from the surveying eyes of his separated self. This Panopticon metaphor is bifurcated into the monopticon and the synopticon, the former letting Smurov externally watch over himself and the latter reflecting back to him others’ views of him. Thus, Smurov recognizes the true nature of his identity to be the sum of his concept of himself and his reflections in others’ minds. He recognizes that he is always being panoptically watched and created. His final happiness, therefore, emphasizes that identity stands in a symbiotic relationship with the surveillance of the self, without which the individual stays in darkness. 2015-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mending Wall: A Study of Restorative Justice in George R. R. Martin’s A Song of Ice and Fire and Tales of Dunk and Egg 2016-02-17T14:35:53+00:00 Rohani, S. Abootalebi, H. The current paper deals with the nature of justice in George R. R. Martin’s novel series A Song of Ice and Fire (1996- ) and Tales of Dunk and Egg (1998- ) under the light of Daniel Van Ness’ theory of restorative justice. This brand of justice is famed for its strong emphasis on the welfare of both parties (that is, victim and offender) in the process of passing judgment, its manner of determining criminal restitution which usually involves conferences, gatherings and community service, and more importantly, its aversion to ‘punishment’ at all costs. In the title-mentioned works, it will be argued, however, George R. R. Martin depicts a world which shows extreme prejudice against most levels and forms of crime, an attitude which not only fails to heal the damage done by the criminal, but also results in even more damage. 2015-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Co-Constructing an EFL Student Teacher’s Personal Experience of Teaching Practice 2015-11-13T10:53:50+00:00 Joseph Ernest Mambu This study inquires into how a student teacher's pedagogical narrative is co-constructed with a teacher educator. Viewed from a dialogic approach to narrative analysis, the current inquiry is to discover the ways these characterizations confirm and expand previous findings on (double-) voicing and positioning. Using Wortham’s tools for analyzing voicing and ventriloquation, the present findings suggest that voicing is accomplished through positioning oneself in relation to other characters and interlocutors, as reflected in the use of specific references, evaluative indexicals, and quotations. A closer scrutiny to voicing also sheds light on a narrator’s positioning with characters in a past narrated event and with an interlocutor during storytelling, as well as on how the interlocutor views the narrator's positioning. The narrator's interlocutor, through questioning in a storytelling event or beyond, resists the narrator’s finalizing tendency of constructing her self. Resisting narrative finalization is important in reflecting on English-language-teaching (ELT) experiences. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Fall of Emily Grierson: A Jungian Analysis of A Rose for Emily 2015-11-13T11:45:06+00:00 Chenghsun Hsu Ya-huei Wang This paper discusses the tragic life of Faulkner’s Emily Grierson, a life dominated by patriarchy and traditional Southern social values, which concludes with her living as a lonely recluse in her family’s decaying aristocratic house for more than forty years until her death. The key of the tragedy is her father, who isolates Emily from the outside world and tortures her with traditional patriarchal rules and Southern family duty. Emily is expected to lead a life like other girls; however, under the burden of old-fashioned, patriarchal responsibilities, her inner world collapses. This study uses the Jungian concepts of archetypes, persona and shadow, anima and animus to interpret Emily’s transitions and her fall. By examining the process through the lens of Jungian theories, the aspects that affect her fall in the patriarchal, aristocratic society, as well as the inherited social values, can be revealed and specified. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rick Riordan’s Intention in Writing Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief and the Reception of the Readers 2015-11-13T11:54:15+00:00 Mugijatna Mugijatna Sri Kusumo Habsari Yunita Ariani Putri This research studies Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief by Rick Riordan. The objectives are to describe the Greek mythology presented in the novel, the intention of Rick Riordan, and the reception of the readers. The methodology is hermeneutic referring to Recoeur’s theory. It was found that, first, the Greek mythology presented in the novel is blended with American real life; second, the main character is a son of a Greek mythology god and a real American woman and, third, the setting is a blend of places in Greek mythology and real American cities. The intention of Riordan is to open up American culture that is lived through by Americans, that a part of American culture is Greek mythology. The readers accept that the novel fulfils the readers’ horizon of expectation of aesthetic enjoyment and of the incorporation of Greek mythology into real American life. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Male and Female Attitudes towards Swear Words: A Case Study at Binus International School 2015-12-21T14:09:19+00:00 Maria Fe S. Nicolau Katharina Endriati Sukamto Swear words are generally used to articulate anger, pain, excitement, frustration, or surprise. It is often imitated by children who may not really understand the meaning of the swear words. This survey-based study aims to identify the swear utterances of male and female teenagers, find out their commonly-used swear words, and investigate whether bilingual male or female students of Grade 12, Binus International School, Simprug, Jakarta, use more swear words. A combination of multiple choice and open-ended questionnaire was constructed and the analysis revealed that swearing is inevitable and becomes a part of the male and female language repertoire. Both groups of students are said to employ the use of Indonesian and English swear words in carrying-out conversations in order to release stress and express intense emotions. However, male students tend to use more swear words that are associated with sexuality. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Poet Builds a Nation: Hafez as a Catalyst in Emerson’s Process of Developing American Literature 2015-11-13T11:35:50+00:00 Behnam Mirzababazadeh Fomeshi Adineh Khojastehpour Numerous studies have tried to elucidate the relationship between Emerson and Hafez. While most of these studies laid emphasis on influence of Hafez on Emerson and others on similarity and/or infatuation, they left untouched some vital historical aspects of this relationship. Taking into consideration the political and literary discourses of Emerson’s America may illuminate the issue. America’s attempt to gain independence from Britain, Emerson’s resolution to establish an American literary tradition, his break with the European fathers to establish that identity, his open-mindedness in receiving non-European cultures and the correspondence between Emerson’s transcendentalism and Hafez’s mysticism led to Hafez’s reception by Emerson. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Iran, America and Iranian American Community in Firoozeh Jazayeri Dumas’ Funny in Farsi 2015-11-13T11:38:09+00:00 Zohreh Ramin Post 9/11 the United States of America concerns the reconstruction of already demonized identities of Arabs and Middle-eastern cultures. Postcolonial works reside in their rendering a tragic or serious image of Middle Easterners to bring the Western (American) audience into sympathizing with the Middle Eastern ethnicities. Could it be the case that a fundamentally humorous (not derogatory) depiction might contribute to easing such cultural tensions? Firoozeh Jazayeri Dumas’ works stand out as critically acclaimed and successful works familiarizing the American audience with the more humane, likeable, sweet and funny aspects of the Iranians and Iranian culture, and the hardships of being an Iranian immigrant and becoming a hybrid individual. This article explores the already-hybridized self and psyche of Firoozeh as an Iranian American. She writes about her mother land and her residence country and comparing the way she has written about them can help readers understand how one can make peace between different parts of her identity. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Juxtaposition of Women, Culture, and Nature in Alice Walker’s Possessing The Secret Of Joy 2015-11-19T08:10:37+00:00 Pedram Lalbakhsh Ali Khoshnood Farzane Gholami The present paper focuses on the tradition of women’s circumsicion in the African tribe of Olinkan in Alice Walker’s Possesing the Secret of Joy. The Olinkans are asked by the white settlers to stop women’s mutilation, but Olinkan men continue this custom stealthily to ensure their patriarchial dominance. This novel is a complicated juxtaposition of two different types of oppression: one by White male colonizers over an African native land, and the other one by the native Olinkan men over native women. In this juxtaposition women and land are both victims exploited and manipulated by men, no matter Black or White. This novel is also seen as a fertile ground to analyze the dual domination of both nature and women by the Olinkan men and White colonizers who are both trying to impose their androcentric rules that are created to dominate women and land, respectively. 2015-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genre and Register of Antagonist’s Language in Media: An Appraisal Study of Indonesian Newspapers 2014-10-29T13:43:49+00:00 Riyadi Santosa Agus Dwi Priyanto Ardiana Nuraeni This research explores how the language of the antagonists is unfolded in print Indonesian media. The analysis is focused on the exploitation of types of texts (genres) and the register. These are explored through the lexis, transitivity, appraisal systems, and text structure. The data were news, editorials, and letters to editors, collected from Kompas, Jawa Pos, Solopos, and Suara Merdeka from May to October 2012. Further selected using criterion-based sampling techniques, the data resulted in eight texts to analyze. In addition to the linguistic analysis, interviews were conducted with the stakeholders of the social issues. The results show that antagonists used the three types of macro genres to express their ideologies in the newspapers. At the level of register, the antagonists develop their attitudes through their feeling (affect), as well as evaluation about other participants (judgment) or things (appreciation). They even amplify and align their attitude through graduation and engagement. 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Deconstructive Reading of Yasmina Reza’s Art 2014-10-29T13:25:12+00:00 Behnaz Amani This article is an investigation of Derrida‟s deconstructive strategies on Yazmina's Reza's Art in which concepts such as floating signifier, différance, paradoxes, and decentralization have been applied. Here the question of aesthetic values of modern abstract art is raised. Reza confronts us with a miscommunication as a shortcoming of the language and therefore a rift in a longstanding friendship. The play is about a white painting, but each character in the play observes the painting in a different color. It seems that the color acts as a sign which is caught up in a chain of signifiers that never rest on a definite signified. In addition, the painting which is the centre of the play is decentred and replaced by one of the characters of the play. At the end, it is demonstrated that the text of this play is indeterminate without giving us any definite meaning. 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Perceptual Dialectology: Northerners and Southerners’ View of Different American Dialects 2014-10-29T13:32:22+00:00 Nurenzia Yannuar Kamola Azimova Duong Nguyen American English, also known as US English, is a set of dialects in the English language mostly used in the United States. It has considerable variations in terminology, phrasing and syntax. The differences are mostly on regional basis. The three major regional dialects are: Northern, Midland, and Southern. Generally, dialect varieties are acceptable in society; however, some of them are more stigmatized than others. The present study has been done to examine American English speakers‟ perceptions towards regional American varieties in terms of correctness, pleasantness, and difference from their own speech. 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Halting a Wilful Degeneration into the Abyss: Rhapsodizing the Morass of Despair in Esiaba Irobi’s Inflorescence and Cotyledons 2014-10-29T13:36:46+00:00 Niyi Akingbe An examination of Nigeria‟s nationhood in the themes of Inflorescence (1989) and Cotyledons (2009) reveals a dogged inscription of Esiaba Irobi‟s poems within the context of Nigeria‟s interweaving socio-political tragedies: the rapacious rape of her resources by the successive political class, the continuous violation of her humanistic ethos by the rampaging military institution, and the ignoble dispossession of her hopeless downtrodden masses. Irobi portrays a dialectical juxtaposition of the fragmented and haunted existentialism in Nigeria against the sanity and sanctity for human rights obtainable in the Western nations. The grounding of Nigeria‟s disillusionment further underscores Nigeria‟s stand on the brink of a political precipice. The paper aims to evaluate how Esiaba Irobi‟s Inflorescence and Cotyledons have implicitly challenged Nigeria‟s inability to live up to its expectations of fulfilling the present and future aspirations of its teeming population in the areas of human and infrastructural developments. 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Entrapment in Relationships in August Strindberg’s The Father and Harold Pinter’s The Collection 2014-10-29T13:55:04+00:00 Samira Sasani Parvin Ghasemi Modern drama is replete with different forms of entrapment in relationships and that is August Strindberg. Some authors have acknowledged their indebtedness to him and some have never mentioned it; Pinter is among the latter group. Though this paper does not investigate the influence of Strindberg on Pinter, studying these two plays, one can see the footsteps of Strindberg in Pinter's play. Employing Watzlawick and Laing's communication theory, this paper tries to investigate the shared concept of entrapment in relationships and the resemblance between these two playwrights. 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aggression or Regression: A Comparative Study of Heroines in The Mill on the Floss and Pride and Prejudice 2014-10-29T14:05:55+00:00 Pyeaam Abbasi The basic formula in the English Victorian novel seems to be an individual standing against the world (of the Victorian society). George Eliot‟s The Mill on the Floss (1860) and Jane Austen‟s Pride and Prejudice (1833) are two excellent examples of intellectual heroines standing against social expectations. This paper, as a comparative study, shows that in the former written by a romantic and modern novelist, the heroine drowns which signifies her self-renunciation and submission to the expectations of the society as well as her revenge of a body being shaped by Victorian ideologies. In the latter written by a conservative and realist writer, the heroine begins a process of education and transformation just to resolve her conflict in marriage. The paper concludes that in such novels the intellectual woman has to either submit to survive, or is wiped out which implies both the heroine‟s self-destruction of a Victorian body (aggression) or her drowning in the waters of ideology (regression). 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Dehumanizing American Dream in David Mamet’s Glengarry Glen Ross 2014-10-29T14:03:20+00:00 Mehdi Sepehrmanesh Ehsan Dehghani The American Dream is a recurrent theme in American literature. In this response, this paper is an attempt to expose the destructive effects of the dream on the human spirit. It is also shown, through the analysis of David Mamet‟s glengarry Glen Ross, that despite the promise of the dream it contains many contradictions. Beneath the seeming simple surface of the play lies a deep current of meanings that reflect the calamities of modern American life, and in a broader sense, the modern world. This article indicates how capitalism inculcates ideologies in the mind of individuals in order to facilitate the exploiting process and unquestioning subordination. Ragged individualism, for instance, as the most prominent of these ideologies, disrupts all communal bonds and even exceeds to the disintegration of friendship and family life. 2014-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##