Identity and Cultural Recognition in the Curriculum: A Rationale

  • Khawlah Ahmed American University of Sharjah, College of Arts and Social Sciences, English Department, Sharjah, UAE, P.O. Box 26666
Keywords: culture, identity, literacy, curriculum, recognition, schooling

Abstract

Culture has become an important component that is addressed in a variety of contexts from the teaching of a language (Baker, 2003), educational equality (Gay, 1997; 2000), to politics and cultural identities (Llosa, 2008; Muller, 2008; Goshgarian, 1998). Empirical and theoretical research shows that students perform better and are more academically and socially successful when their culture is recognized, portrayed favorably in the school curriculum, and used as a fundamental source of information (Nieto, 1996; Diamond and Moore, 1995; Au, 1993; Geyhle, 1983). This paper examines the importance of inclusion and recognition of cultures in school curriculums and presents research that suggests that despite the importance given to this issue in political and social discourse, inclusion of cultures in many curriculums has yet to be fully realized.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Apple, M. W. (1996). Cultural politics and education. New York: Teachers College Press.

Applebee, A. (1974). Tradition and reforming the teaching of English: A history. Urbana: National Council of Teachers of English.

Atkinson, D. (2004). Contrasting rhetorics/contrasting cultures: Why contrastive rhetoric needs a better conceptualization of culture. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 3, 277-289. [CrossRef]

Au, K. H. (1981). Participant structure in a reading lesson with Hawaiian children: Analysis of a culturally appropriate instrument. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 10(2), 9-15.

Au, K. H. (1993). Literacy instruction in multicultural settings. USA: Bolt, Rinehart and Winston.

Baker, B. (2008). The educated student: Global citizen or global consumer? In G. H. Muller (Ed.), The new world reader: Thinking and writing about the global community (2nd ed.) (pp. 295-303). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Banks, J. A. (1995). Multicultural education: Characteristics and goals. In J. A. Banks, & C. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 3-28). Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.

Diamond. B., & Moore, M. (1995). Multicultural literacy: Mirroring the reality of the classroom. New York: Longman Publishers.

Diaz, C. (Ed.). (2001). Multicultural education in the 21st century. New York: Longman.

Ferdman, B. (1990). Literacy and cultural identity. Harvard Educational Review, 60(2), 181-204.

Gardner, R. (1991). Attitudes and acculturation in second language studying. In A. Reynolds (Ed.), Bilingualism, multiculturalism, and second language learning (pp. 43-63). Hillsdate, New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Gay, G. (1995). Mirror images on common issues: Parallels between multicultural education and critical pedagogy. In C. Sleeter, & E. McLaren (Eds.), Multicultural education, critical pedagogy, and the politics of difference (pp. 155-190). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Gay, G. (1997). Educational equality for students of color. In J. A. Banks, & C. A. Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp.195-228). Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Giroux, H. A. (1987). Critical literacy and student experience: Donald Graves’ approach to literacy. Language Arts, 64, 175-181.

Giroux. H. A. (1988). Schooling and the struggle for public life: Critical pedagogy in the modem age. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Giroux, H. A. (1994). Disturbing pleasures. Great Britain: Rutledge.

Gordon, A., & Browne, K. (1996). Guiding young children in a diverse society. Needham Heights, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.

Goshgarian, G. (1998). Exploring language. New York: Longman.

Gudykunst, W. (1994). Bridging differences: Effective intergroup communication. Thousand Oaks California: SAGE Publications.

Hoffman, D. (1996). Culture and self in multicultural education: Reflections on discourse, text and practice. American Educational Research Journal, 33(3), 545-569.

Jandt, F. E. (2007). An introduction to intercultural communication: Identities in a global community (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Krieger, Z. (2008, March 7). An academic building bloom transforms the Persian Gulf. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(29), p. B.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The dream keepers: Successful teachers of African American children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lie, A. (2002). Multicultural issues in the 1994 English curriculum in Indonesian senior high schools. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Center Singapore.

Llosa, M. V. (2008). The culture of liberty. In G. H. Muller (Ed.), The new world reader: Thinking and writing about the global community (2nd ed.) (pp. 295-303). New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Miller, S., & McCaskill, B. (Eds.). (1993). Multicultural literature and literacies: Making space for differences. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Mills, A. (2008, Sep).Emirates look to the West for prestige, Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(5), A1.

Muller, G. H., (2008). The new world reader: Thinking and writing about the global community. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Nieto, S. (1996). Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education. New York: Longman Publishers USA.

Ogbu. J. (1991). Cultural diversity and school experiences. In C. Walsh (Ed.), Literacy as praxis: Culture, language and pedagogy. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Reynolds, A. (1991). Bilingualism, multiculturalism, and second language learning. Hilisdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Seller, M. S. (1988). To seek America: A history of ethnic life in the United States. Englewood. New Jersey: Jorome S. Ozer.

Seller, M. S. (1992). Historical perspectives on multicultural education: What kind? By whom? For whom? And why? Social Science Records, 30, 11-30.

Shujaa, W. (1995, Summer). Cultural self meets cultural other in the African American experience: Teachers’ responses to a curriculum content reform. Theory into Practice, 34(3), 194-201. [CrossRef]

Suleiman, M. (1996). Educating the Arab American child: Implications for teachers. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 392864).

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup relations. In S. Worchel, & W. Austin (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp.7- 24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall Publishers.

Takaki, R. (1993). A different mirror: A history of multicultural America. Canada: Little, Brown and Company.

Thomas, L., Wareing, S., Singh, I., Peccei, J. S., Thornborrow, J., & Jones, J. (2004). Language society and power (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Uphall, J. K. (1974). Religious minorities: In or out of the culturally pluralistic curriculum. Educational Leadership, 33(3), 199-202.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mit Press.

Walsh, C. (1991). Literacy as praxis: A framework and an introduction. In C. Walsh (Ed.), Literacy as praxis: Culture, language and pedagogy. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex Publishing.

Wright, J. W. (1995). Social distance, discrimination, and political conflict: Arab-ethnics in America. The Journal of Intergroup Relations 21(4), 3-11.
Published
2010-11-09
Section
Articles